Pioneer BDP-95FD Blu-Ray Disc Reviews For the Multi-Region Version

The Multi-Region version is available from Planet Omni.

This player is amazing. It’s clearly better than the first gen players, bdps1, even the bd91. there are a few little things to consider about blu ray. It SHOULDN’T play cds. if you have 1000 to spend on an Elite blu ray, then you should have good money, like 600 for a Cambridge azure or a like 24 bit cd player. blu ray lasers are very narrow, and will not read cds correctly, and to make them do so would be way more work than is considered worthwhile by the major manufacturers.

That being said, DROOL! best upscaling I have seen on any player to date, full streaming features, and the Pioneer Elite look. It’s a really good player and I for one think that it’s the best to date.

It plays CDs, as well as internally decodes advanced audio (minus DTS-HD Master) into PCM for transmission over HDMI or analog, for all the legacy receivers out there.

Very nice Blu Ray player though with many nice features. Loads like a computer not as fast as a regular player but no big deal. This model is much better than the last from this line. Picture and sound is so wonderful on a Pioneer Plasma TV.I also have the Elite VSX-91TXH amp to go with my system Great Work Pioneer but work on the prices ok.

WOW That is awesome player!

I am starting to flavor Pioneer the most.

According to the manual for the BDP-94FD, the connector diagram on page 11 shows 8 RCA connectors to support 7.1.

I doubt there will be any major physical changes between the BDP-94FD and the to-be-released BDP-95FD.

I don’t claim any special expertise but my experience with Pioneer Elite has been my barometer. I bought a second DVD a couple of years back to support both DVD and SACD which my Denon did not. The Pioneer bested the Denon in both Picture Quality and musicality in my setup AND the Pioneer is still working, the Denon’s motor went about 6 months ago. Sounds real simple to me………..

Pioneer’s new Elite Blu-ray player, the BDP-95FD, is geared to audiophiles as much as it is aimed at videophiles: In addition to HDMI 1.3a and x.v.ycc color, it has bitstream output of even the highest audio codecs, including DTS HD Master Audio. In other words, if you just bought one of the latest, most kick-ass A/V receivers, you might actually be able to use its audio decoders.

The receiver does a few other things too, most notably acting as a media streamer for PC content from Pioneer’s Home Media Gallery system.

Pioneer® Elite® BDP-95FD Blu-ray Disc Player

The new Pioneer Elite BDP-95FD offers unprecedented high definition picture and sound as a result of HDMI 1.3 connectivity. In addition to superb picture performance, the increased bandwidth capacity means the player has internal decoding of high resolution audio formats: Dolby® TrueHD, Dolby® Digital+, and DTS-HD(TM) as well as bit-stream output for all advanced audio formats including DTS-HD Master for 7.1 surround sound performance. The BDP-95FD can faithfully reproduce the 1080p 24 frames per second (fps) rate needed to preserve feature film sequences as the director intended. The Pioneer Elite Blu-ray Disc player incorporates HDMI Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) to ensure streamline integration with other HDMI-CEC enabled high definition theater components. This feature allows users to control a whole home theater setup with a single remote for maximum convenience capability.

The new Blu-ray Disc player offers Pioneer’s exclusive Home Media Gallery that allows users to directly access and playback music, movies and photos stored on a home PC. The user-friendly home networking feature also provides IP networking for immediate downloading and of new digital media files straight from the computer through the BDP-95FD to a connected flat screen television. The Pioneer Elite Blu-ray Disc player is compliant with Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA), Window and Apple computers video, Windows Vista or Windows Media Connect as well as Microsoft playsforsure(TM) DRM technology.

How very happy am I that I was a Pioneer Elite “Target”…The VSX-94 is beyond comprehension, when matched with the Bdp-95, life becomes absolutely, hilariously in harmony..that, and after it took two weeks complete a very effective hook up, I WAS AT ONE WITH ELITEZEN MANUALS….

I just picked up a Pioneer Elite BDP-95HD from the Pioneer Store in Costa Mesa.

I will keep this first post for answers to common questions so that new owners get answers quickly.

Does the Pioneer Elite BDP-95HD generate the DTS-HD Master Audio Bitstream that can be decoded by the receiver / processor?

— Yes. My Integra DTC-9.8 displays ‘DTS-HD MSTR’ when I select DTS-HD Master Audio sound track from disk. Audio is un-frig’in-believable!

Are the load times improved over the 94HD?

— Using POTC: COTBP as a benchmark, it took 22 seconds from pressing START on the remote to the POTC “loading…” message to appear and a total of 38 seconds for the Disney screen to appear

How does the PQ of the 95FD compare to the 94HD?

— Very similar – 95FD just slightly sharper

How well does the 1080p24fps work:

— Flawlessly

How is good is the DVD SD upconversion on the BDP-95FD?

— Excellent (better than the BDP-94HD and the HD1)


I have been watching Kingdom of Heaven Blu Ray while listening to the DTS-HD MA sound track (Integra displays DTS-HD MSTR 🙂 Sounds un-frig’in-believable.

Player seems to be operating flawlessly. Boot up time very acceptable. Responds to remote immediately. It is difficult to tell if there are any PQ differences from the PS3 that I had but the DTS-HD MA is mind blowing…

It just took 35 seconds from pushing the close button on the remote to Kingdom of Heaven to begin playing…

With Disk in DVD player and player on stop, using POTC: COTBP it took 22 seconds for the POTC loading message to appear and a total of 38 seconds for the Disney screen to appear…

After setting it up I can’t help feeling déjà vu all over again. As you can see in the pic it does look nearly identical to the 94HD and HD1. I do like the class look it has though. I really like that high gloss piano finish look. As Tony said it takes about 35 seconds for titles to start playing. Which actually is a pretty BIG improvement over the two older models. Just like the others initial set up is a breeze. I do like the Pioneer start up screen better on the 95FD. It just looks cooler. I am not only comparing this unit to its brothers (or cousins) but also to the Samsung 1400. This ELITE unit costs more but you feel like it is money well spent.

Once again I love having the resolution button on the remote. Being able to change it on the fly is so much nicer then having to stop the movie and go into the set up menu (like the 1400 and HD DVD players). If there is one feature other manufacturers could learn from Pioneer that would be a good one to start with. Also, having 1080p/23.98 (24) done without issues is a breath of fresh air. Toshiba has been struggling as many of us know so it is nice to get a unit out of the box (just like the 1400, 94HD and HD1) that can do 1080p/23.98 without any EDID issues. I have not spent a great amount of time with this unit but from what I have I can say it is THE best Blu ray player on the market.

The picture Q is very colorful and very sharp. It bests the very impressive (especially for its price) Samsung 1400. Not by a lot in terms of pic Q but when you add the entire package together you know why the Pioneer is more. Picture settings, menu options, great remote (which is light years ahead of the competition) and of course a great picture with great sound. Speaking of sound I have only done a couple of comparisons so far but it is too easy to select bitstream passing in the menu. No confusion here. You are either sending D.D. or DTS via HDMI or PCM… Your call. That easy. I will do more on audio soon but sending the audio to my receiver (Onkyo 905) sounded great just as I expected. It also sounded good the few minutes I had the 95FD doing it. I am not going to say which is better because I do not want to open that can of worms again. So do not ask here. PM me.

I am using the new Sony VPL- VW60 “Black Pearl” (which is the 3rd pic) for all of my comparison so far. It handles 1080p/23.98 like a champ. I can also send it straight into my crystalio II and then tweak the image before sending it to the VW60 in 1080p/23.98. The Pioneer 95FD gets along with all of my other components which I do not take for granted these days.

And yes I am making reference to the XA2 and A35 which are stubborn when it comes to sending 1080p/24 to some displays. In direct comparison to the 94HD the 95FD is obviously a more flexible unit with a little quicker load times. Being able to pass HBR audio directly to the receiver for decoding is a really cool feature. Especially if you purchased one of the newer ones that can decode it. The picture Q is very close. I keep going back and forth. Going straight to my pj it does look like the 95FD is just a little more sharper but their brilliant colors are nearly identical. I will say the home media gallery looks more refined on the 95FD. I have never really got into that feature before but now I am intrigued so I may just jump in!

Bottom line is if you have the 94HD and do not care about the bitstream audio feature then there is absolutely no reason to dump it for the 95FD. However, if you do not and are interested in getting the best Blu ray unit in terms of features and pic/sound Q then look no further than the 95FD! I hate to keep picking the new Pioneer units as my favorite Blu ray unit but honestly the other companies are still two steps behind. The 95FD is the starter in my set up. More to come (SD DVD versus the A35 and XA2 and even 1400) as well as a few more thoughts on audio…BTW, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (BR) is looking and sounding awesome on this unit! Pick up a copy!

Well, I am pleasantly surprised to post that the 95FD has excellent upconversion. Much better than the 94HD and HD1. I even put it through the HQV Blu ray benchmark tests and it handled them very good. Especially my favorite stadium torture test! And as tradition lately it even made my adult videos look great! It is right on par with the A35 and XA2. I will work harder tomorrow and do real side by side comparisons (1400 included) but my first initial impressions are very good to excellent… More to come..

Great report Joe. Thanks. Looks like a winner. I too LOVE the “classic” look and finish of “Elite” equipment. This is definitely the machine I will purchase when my Onkyo 885 Pre/pro arrives.

Have you compared a 5.1 PCM track coming out of the PS3 vs. 95? I know there should not be a noticeable difference, but if you would not mind doing a comparison I would be curious to know for sure.

It is not surprising that DTS-MA sounds better from the 95 as we are getting the full signal vs. only the 1.5 core of the PS3. Can’t wait to hear this!

The DTS-HD hi res is from the King Of New York’s DTS HD soundtrack (I am reviewing) and the DTS-HD MASTER is from the Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer soundtrack which states it is DTS-HD MASTER…

As I posted earlier in this thread the 1400 is very close but the 95FD produces a sharper image. I also prefer it for SD DVD upconversion. I also prefer all the other cool features like the resolution button on the remote. It is much nicer being able to change resolutions on the fly then having to hit stop and go into a set up menu. Especially when you are trying to compare them! I have spent awhile this afternoon playing different blu ray discs but tomorrow I will do my comparisons between the XA2 for SD DVD upconversion. I predict the 95FD will be on par with the XA2. We need to find out which chip it is using because it is by far much better than the 94HD and HD1… More to come tomorrow…

If the 95 can match the XA2 on SD upscaling this is a tremendous plus. The XA2 makes new DVDs almost look like HD and the only players so far that can do the same job are the very Hi-end Denon’s or players costing 5 times more. The Samsung 1200 has the same Reon chip and should also be great but lacks the new audio features. Depending on your tests I will be a new 95 owner soon.

I have the bdp-95fd and the pdp-6010fd display. Extremely happy with it. Firmware support has been excellent. I am using it with a TacT 2.2x digital preamp, TacT digital Boz amp, Escalante Pinyons and a pair of Escalante subs. My connection is through the coax digital output. I have had an signature upgraded Denon 3930 in my system using the same set-up and I must say the sound quality and bass impact blows me away on the bpd-95fd In stock form, the Pioneer bpd-95fd is an excellent performer in terms of audio and video.

Given my system can only process two channel audio through the digital output, am I getting the two channel version decoded Dolby Digital Plus?

Me too, I have the 95 and a 94 receiver and it is quite impressive in the sound department. It is a definite benefit to have the ma tracks. If you have good equipment.

High resolution picture and sound performance come together in the new Pioneer® Elite® BDP-95FD Blu-ray Disc® player introduced at the CEDIA Expo today. Pioneer Electronics (USA) Inc. is showcasing its highly anticipated player, the industry’s first to offer bitstream output of all advanced audio formats including: Dolby® TrueHD, Dolby® Digital+, DTS-HD(TM) High Resolution and DTS-HD(TM) Master Audio.

The BDP-95FD ensures a near cinematic experience with its ability to handle 1080p 24 frames per second (fps) reproduction rate preserving a feature film’s original sequence. Taking advantage of HDMI® 1.3 connectivity, the new player provides smooth, pristine imagery and dynamic 7.1 surround sound to deliver the full emotional impact of Blu-ray Disc feature films as the director intended.

The Pioneer Elite Blu-ray Disc player leads the industry with sophisticated home theater offerings including HDMI Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) to ensure seamless integration with other high definition theater components. In addition, movies, music and photos can be easily streamed from a home PC to connected 1080p television via the player’s enhanced home networking functionality for unrivaled entertainment.

“Our newest Elite BDP-95FD player is like having a movie theater projector delivering best-in-class picture and sound at home. Its high performance is a testament to our optical disc heritage and commitment to delivering the ultimate home theater by introducing lossless high resolution audio that entertainment junkies will truly appreciate,” said Chris Walker, senior manager of marketing and product planning at Pioneer Electronics (USA) Inc. “When combined with a KURO television and Elite A/V receiver, the BDP-95FD immerses home audiences in a seeing and hearing experience like never before.”

Next Generation High Definition Performance

Leading high definition home theater, the BDP-95FD delivers unprecedented picture and sound as a result of HDMI 1.3 capability. The new generation HDMI version is designed for smoother connectivity to emerging 1080p flat panel televisions and other high resolution devices. With increased bandwidth capacity, the Pioneer Elite Blu-ray Disc player can transfer larger amounts of uncompressed high definition video and audio resolutions as well as standard DVD that will immerse viewers in an unforgettable viewing experience.

Stunning colors and enhanced picture reproduction are complimented by the player’s additional support of lossless digital audio formats Dolby® TrueHD, Dolby® Digital+, DTS-HD(TM) High Resolution Audio and DTS-HD(TM) Master Audio. As a result of HDMI 1.3, the BDP-95FD brings the highest quality sound performance of Blu-ray Disc film titles to the living room giving audiophiles up to 7-channels of pristine audio that defines ultimate home theater.

High Definition Integration Made Simple

Streamlining the integration of multiple home theater components, the BDP-95FD offers HDMI-CEC technology. This new convenience feature synchronizes the Blu-ray Disc player with other CEC-enabled products and controls an entire setup with a single remote. With an easy to navigate graphical user interface, HDMI-CEC requires minimal user effort while ensuring premium performance and maximum entertainment.

Cinematic Picture At Home

Mastered at 1080p 24fps, Blu-ray Disc movie titles preserve a feature film’s original sequence to faithfully deliver stellar image quality. Pioneer engineers designed the Elite BDP-95FD Blu-ray Disc to handle and output high performance 1080p 24fps signal for natural, pristine film reproduction as the director intended.

Home Media Gallery

Digital media fans can playback their favorite downloaded video and music files as well as personal photos straight from a home PC hard drive to their high definition television through Pioneer’s exclusive Home Media Gallery.

This home networking feature provides users a rich, high definition graphical interface with fast navigation to search, select and play desired content. Home Media Gallery offers IP networking for quick access and downloading of new digital media files straight from the computer for immediate viewing through the BDP-95FD on a connected flat screen television. The Pioneer Elite Blu-ray Disc player is compliant with Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) sources, as well as Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, and Media Center editions, as well as 3rd party DLNA server software available for both Mac and Linux based computers.

Some Blu-ray players have Dolby TrueHD, some even have Dolby Digital+, DTS-HD High Resolution or DTS-HD Master Audio, but Pioneer’s BDP-95FD is the first to pack all four – guess that’s why they call it the Elite.

Pair it up with one of the latest high-end A/V receivers and you’ll be able to hear a pin dropped in the background as Bruce Willis takes out a helicopter with a flying cop car (again) in Die Hard 4.0.

As well as its audio treats it ticks the usual high-end 24p, HDMI 1.3 and HDMI-CEC boxes – the latter for taking control of all your HDMI equipped gear from one über remote.

Natch, it’s also compliant with Digital Living Network Alliance (or DLNA for short) for accessing content on other compatible kit and it’ll stream content stashed away on your PC using Pioneer’s Home Media Gallery system.


Product Type

Blu-Ray disc player

Form Factor



16.5 in


13.9 in


4.1 in


14.6 lbs

Sound Output Mode

Surround Sound

Analog Video Signal

S-Video, Component video, Composite video


Media Type


Built-in Audio Decoders

Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD decoder

Media Load Type


DVD Repeat Modes

All, Title, Random, Chapter

Supported Digital Video Standards


Supported Digital Audio Standards


Output Resolution


Audio System

Digital Audio Format

DTS digital output, Dolby Digital output

Response Bandwidth

4 – 22000 Hz

Dynamic Range

108 dB

Signal-To-Noise Ratio

115 dB

Total Harmonic Distortion

0.0015 %

Additional Features

Gold plated connectors

DVD Features

Picture Zoom


Picture Zoom Power

2x, 4x

MP3 Compatible


Additional Features

Parental lock, DLNA compatible, On-screen display, JPEG photo playback

Remote Control


Remote control




Connector Type

1 x HDMI output ( 19 pin HDMI Type A ), 1 x Ethernet ( RJ-45 ), 1 x Component video output ( RCA phono x 3 ), 1 x Composite video output ( RCA phono ), 1 x S-Video output ( 4 pin mini-DIN ), 1 x 5.1 channel audio line-out ( RCA phono x 6 ), 1 x Audio line-out ( RCA phono x 2 ), 1 x Digital audio output (coaxial) ( RCA phono ), 1 x Digital audio output (optical) ( TOSLINK ), 2 x Remote control ( Mini-phone 3.5 mm )


Cables Included

1 x Audio cable, 1, 1 x Video cable


Power Consumption Operational

35 Watt

Power Consumption Standby / Sleep

0.5 Watt

Power Device

Power supply


Power supply


AC 120 V

Health, Safety & Environmental (HSE) Management In Engineering Practice


Health, Safety and Environmental management should be part of the engineering profession in a country for the purpose of

o duty of care

o economic reasons and

o legal reasons.

HSE management should therefore consider five broad phases:

* Specifications

* Design and implementation

* Installation and commissioning

* Operation and maintenance

* Changes after commissioning.

* Compliance with the standards requires four essential elements:

* Identification of safety functions required for the safe shutdown

* Assignment of a safety integrity level (SIL) for each safety function

* Use of the safety lifecycle for the engineering design and

* Verification of the SIL achieved for each safety function.


The engineering code of practice takes into consideration the following:

* Public safety: Giving priority to the safety and well-being of the community and having regard to this principle in assessing obligations to the clients, employers and colleagues.

* Risk Management: Taking reasonable steps to minimize the risk of loss of lives, injuries or suffering.

* Workplace and construction site: Minimizing potential dangers involved in the construction and manufacture of engineering products and processes.

* Public/Community well-being

* Communication

* Conflicts of interest

* Confidentiality

The privilege of practicing engineering is entrusted to those qualified and who have the responsibility for applying engineering skills, scientific knowledge and ingenuity for the advancement of human welfare and quality of life. Fundamental principles of conduct of engineers include truth, honesty and trustworthiness in their service to the society, honourable and ethical practice showing fairness, courtesy and good faith towards clients, colleagues and others. Engineers take societal, cultural, economic, environmental and safety aspects into consideration and strive for the efficient use of the world’s resources to meet long term human needs.


Safety is a concern in virtually all engineering design processes. Engineers should understand safety in the context of engineering design and what it means to say that a design is safe against human injuries.

Current design methods prioritize economic considerations over environmental ones. In some cases, economic considerations also serve environmental goals. For instance, the minimization of materials used in a structure means resources are saved. If they are saved at the expense of the length of the operating life of a product, then, economic considerations conflict with environmental interests which demand that products be made as durable as possible because of the need to minimize resource usage and waste generation in the long term.

Safety is the antonym of risk. So, a design is safe to the extent that it reduces risk. Safe design aims at minimizing risk in the standard sense of this term.

A safe design is the combination of all those procedures and principles that are used by engineers to make designed objects safe against accidents leading to human death or injuries, long term health effects, damage to the environment or malfunctioning in general.

Several design strategies used to achieve safety in operations of potentially dangerous technology are:

* inherently safe design

* safety factors

* negative feedback (self-shutdown) and

* multiple independent safety barriers.

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the most common method of assessing safety but safe designs are used to reduce risks in the standard (probabilistic) sense but is inadequate. Safe design strategies are used to reduce estimated probabilities of injuries or reducing uncertainties not only risks. They are used to cope with hazards and eventualities that cannot be assigned meaningful probabilities.


There are four (4) main design principles in Engineering practice.

(a) Inherently safe design:

This minimizes the inherent dangers in the process as far as possible. Potential hazards are excluded rather than enclosed or coped with. For instance, dangerous substances are replaced by less dangerous ones and fire proof materials are used rather than inflammable ones.

(b) Safety Factors

Construction should be strong enough to resist load and disturbances exceeding those that are intended. A common way to obtain such safety reserves is to employ explicitly chosen numerical safety factors are employed. If a safety factor of two (2) is employed when building a bridge, then the bridge is calculated to resist twice the maximal load to which it will be exposed to in practice.

(c) Negative feedback mechanisms

This is introduced to achieve a self-shutdown in case of device failure or when the operator looses control. Examples are safety valves that let out steam when the pressure is too high in a steam boiler and the dead man’s hole that stops the train when the driver falls asleep. One of the most important safety measures in the nuclear industry is to ensure that reactors close down automatically in critical situations.

(d) Multiple Independent Safety Barriers

Safety barriers are arranged in chains, so that each barrier is independent of its predecessors (if the first fails, the second is still intact). The first barriers prevent accidents; the second barriers limit the consequences of an accident and rescue services as the last resort.

Safety factors and multiple safety barriers deal with uncertainties as well as risks. But currently, Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) is used but does not deal with uncertainties. Probabilistic calculations can support but will not supplant the Engineers’ ethically responsible judgment (environment, health and safety culture).

Safety engineering principles also include education of operators, maintenance of equipment and installations and incidence reporting are examples of safety practices of general importance.


The Engineering profession is expected to be the harbinger of Health, Safety & Environmental management by virtue of the complexity of the output of the profession and their impacts on the lives of the general populace. How have we carried this along in our professional practices?

Seven (7) bad engineering practices have been identified:

* Believing that if something is not specifically stated, either “shall do” or “shall not do” in the standards, an engineer does not need to worry about it.

* Thinking that meeting the minimum requirements means the process is safe and complies with the standard.

* Ignoring the importance of good engineering practice.

* Designing systems that meet economic requirements but not safety protection requirements.

* Neglecting human factors (errors in calculations etc)

* Focusing on capital cost and not on lifecycle costs.

* Focusing only on the safety integrity level (SIL) and not on prevention.

Safety is an essential ethical requirement in engineering practice. Strategies for safe design are used not only to reduce estimated probabilities of injuries but also to cope with hazards and eventualities that cannot be assigned meaningful probabilities. Designers have an ethical responsibility to make constructions that are safe for future use. Safety is concerned with avoiding certain classes of events that are morally right to avoid.

In engineering design, safety consideration always includes safety against unintended human death or injuries that occur as a result of the unintended use of the designed object for:

* Prevention of damage to the environment

* Prevention of long term health effects

For example, if a bridge collapses, the engineers who designed it are held responsible.

Building designers and builders must obey construction safety in the use of Scaffolds, tool nets, tool boxes, mechanical lifts and manual lifts under safe procedures, use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) on sites (boots/helmets), clear passages and road-ways, construction tapes to cordon off work areas etc. Most engineers have neglected this aspect, thus, playing with the lives of the generality of the populace.

What engineers do have lasting influences on safety and define our level of Environment, Health and Safety culture.


Ethical obligations are necessary in order for engineers to carry out their profession. Without the obligation of confidentiality, clients could not trust engineers with commercially sensitive information. Without these information, engineers could not do their jobs. The moral obligations of our profession can be understood as duties which are necessary.

There are five (5) fundamental values necessary for the ethical obligations:

* Protection of lives and safeguarding of people.

* Professionalism, integrity and competence

* Commitment to community/public well-being

* Sustainable management and care for the environment

* Sustaining engineering knowledge


* Engineers shall hold paramount the Health, Safety and Environment/welfare of the public in the practice of their profession.

* Engineers shall practice only in their areas or field of competence, in a careful and diligent manner and in conformance with standards, laws, codes, rules and regulations applicable to engineering practice.

* Engineers shall examine the societal and environmental impact of their actions and projects, including the use and conservation of resources and energy in order to make informed recommendations and decisions..

* Engineers should declare their interests clearly.

* Engineers shall sign and take responsibility for all engineering works which they prepared or directly supervised. Engineers may sign works prepared by others only with their consent and after sufficient review and verification.

* Engineers shall act as faithful agents for their employers or clients and maintain confidentiality, avoid conflicts of interest whenever possible and disclose unavoidable conflicts.

* Engineers professional concerns must be made known to the client and the consequences of engineering decisions or judgments.

* Engineers should reject any public works, engineering decisions or practice that endanger the HSE of the public.

* Engineers shall commit to life-long learning, strive to advance the body of engineering knowledge and should encourage other engineers to do likewise.

* Engineers shall promote responsibility, commitment and ethics both in the education and practice phases of engineering. They should enhance society’s awareness of engineer’s responsibilities to the public and encourage the communication of these principles of ethical conduct among engineers.


This is about the long term survival of humanity. It recognizes that decisions made today must enable both those in the present as well as people of the foreseeable future to make effective choices about their quality of life.

Failure to identify risks to safety and the inability to address or control these risks can result in massive costs, both human and economic. The multidisciplinary nature of safety engineering means that a very broad array of professionals are actively involved in accident prevention or safety engineering.

A critical fault endangers or few people. A catastrophic fault endangers, harms or kills a significant number of people. Engineer’s errors or inability to incorporate the HSE management in his practice spells catastrophic.


Everyone must strengthen his or her understanding of HSE awareness by making safety a priority. Also, cost effective solutions in order to gain the biggest return on investment should be developed.

Engineers take early design of a system, analyze it to find what faults can occur and then propose safety requirements in design specifications upfront and changes to existing systems to make the system safer.

If significant safety problems are discovered late in the design process, correcting them can e very expensive. This type of error has the potential to waste large sums of money.

* At all times, take all reasonable care to ensure that your work and the consequences of your work cause no unacceptable risk to safety.

* Take all reasonable steps to make your management/client and those to whom they have a duty of care aware of the risks you identify.

* Make anyone overruling or neglecting your professional advice formally aware of the consequent risks.

* It is critical for engineers to maintain a deep and broad understanding of the many technical and professional practice issues that they will inevitably encounter in their role as employees of public owners. This is achieved through appropriate education, training, experience, license, professional engineering practice and continuing professional development.


The engineering practice like the construction industry is the agent of social and economic development, the barometer of economic activities and a very large employer of labour in Nigeria. It accounts for over 60% of the total capital investment. It is the largest employer of labour (think of all the electrical, mechanical, civil, chemical and computer jobs in industries).

Health, Safety and environment, which is concerned with life and property must be taken serious in this profession. Safety procedures are necessary to prevent accidents, diseases and harmful effects on the health of the public at large arising from the activities in the industry on site and its environs or off site.

Good HSE management is visible in a country through the quality of the professional ethics of the professionals, engineers inclusive and the level of her health values and the state of her environment, that is, her level of cleanliness (personal hygiene and public sanitation).

It can only be developed through personal commitment, willingness and self-sacrifice because of the long and short run benefits therein. HSE management habit starts with safety consciousness. Safety consciousness dwells with each and every one of us and should be taken along to our professional practices.

People should recognize that their health and well-being are related to the quality of their environment and should apply thoughtful principles to attempt to improve the quality of their environment.

As Engineers, we should lead others in being safety conscious at all times and refraining from doing anything that may result to accident. We should apply safety measures to all our daily activities and take our safety and that of others around us as our responsibilities especially in our practices.

Finally, as Engineers we should pursue sustainable Health, Safety & environmental management and make it part and parcel of our engineering practice today for the continued relevance of our profession tomorrow. It is only when this is done that our professional ethics will be meaningful knowing fully well that the products of our professional practices have great impact on the lives of the entire citizens of this country.

Health, Safety & Environmental management habit is therefore not only necessary and but remains a vital ingredient of our professional ethics in engineering practice in Nigeria and elsewhere and this must be sustained always by all.

Developing Self-Discipline For Starting Your Own Business

The American Dream

More than 50% of all Americans dream of starting their own business some day, but only 3% ever do, in their entire lifetimes. In our free market economy, where it is extremely easy to start and build your own business, and where there have never been more opportunities in all of human history than exist today, why is it that so few people follow their dreams into entrepreneurship and business building?

I have studied the subject of entrepreneurship, business and management for many years. I have started and built several successful multi-million dollar companies from scratch. I have read literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles over the years, and taken a masters degree in business and administration on the subject. I have worked with many thousands of entrepreneurs and business people in large and small organizations all over the country and all over the world. I have trained many tens of thousands of entrepreneurs, managers and executives on subjects ranging from sales and marketing through to strategic planning and finance.

Even today, with all of this experience, I really don’t consider myself to be an expert. However, I am a little bit more knowledgeable than the average person and I have some very definite ideas on what you can do to start and build a successful business.

You May Not Get Rich

First of all, why would you want to start a business in the first place? Most people think that the reason for starting your own business is so that you can make a lot of money and retire rich. This is a great idea but it is not the real reason that people take the risks of entrepreneurship.

The number one reason, ahead of all the others, is for the personal freedom offered by owning your own business. There is a little joke that says that when you start your own business, you only have to work half days; and you get to decide whichever 12 hour period you prefer.

In my work with entrepreneurs over the years, I have found that, although they do not necessarily become rich, they do become happier, more self-confident and more self-reliant. Very few entrepreneurs would ever go back to a salaried job. Even though they don’t make an enormous amount of money, they love the freedom so much that they could not imagine turning their destiny over to anyone else.

You Can Do It Too

Someone once said that you can only be a successful author if you cannot not write. You can only be a successful entrepreneur under the same conditions. You can only be successful starting and building your own business if you cannot not do it. The starting point of success as an independent business person is a burning desire for independence, freedom and opportunity. It is the desire to be your own boss and not be controlled or dictated to by anyone else.

But let’s go back to the first question. Why is it that so few people actually start their own businesses? And the primary reasons are fear and ignorance. Fear and ignorance are and always have been the greatest enemies of human success.

Don’t Be Ignorant

Fear blows even the slightest risks out of proportion and paralyzes the person, holding him or her back from ever taking that giant leap of faith into the uncertainty of entrepreneurial business activity. And fear thrives on ignorance. The less you know about anything important or risky, the greater is your level of fear and the lower is your likelihood that you will ever take any action at all.

The good news is that when you begin to chip away at your ignorance, your levels of fear and hesitancy decline at the same rate. When you become thoroughly knowledgeable about what it is that you want to do, you will find yourself with far more confidence and courage than you have fear and doubt. And from that point on, you can begin to make some real progress.

Three Types of Businesses

More than one million men and women start their own businesses every year in America. More people are starting more businesses, selling more products and services today, than at any other time in human history. Remember, there are three types of businesses that you can form. They are corporations, a sole proprietorship and a partnership. Only corporations are registered and the registration is running at over 850,000 per year. The number of sole proprietorships are in the hundreds of thousands. Nobody really knows., You can start one by simply deciding to, this very minute as you listen to this tape, without even registering it, The number of partnerships is also in the hundreds of thousands, maybe even millions every year.

Because so many hundreds of thousands of men and women are starting various business organizations each year, this means that you can as well. Maybe one or two of these people are smarter or better than you, but you can be sure that hundreds of thousands of them have far more problems and obstacles in their lives than you could ever dream of. In other words, there is no reason whatsoever for you to be afraid of starting your own business.

The key is to make your business a low-risk operation at the beginning with a high possibility for success later on. And these are what you will learn here.

You are the President

By the way, you are already the president of your own company, whether you know it or not. You are the president of an entrepreneurial company with only one employee, yourself. Your company has only one product to sell on the marketplace, your personal services. So, you are the head of your own personal services corporation. And if you name your company after yourself, you don’t even have to register it to protect the name. You can go out and print business cards with your name, John Jones Enterprises or John Jones and Associates, and your title, “John Jones – President” with your home and address phone number. The next time you are out with someone and they ask you what you do, you can tell them that you are the president of your own company. When they say that they thought you worked for such and such a company, you can reply by saying that, “Yes, I do work there. They are my best clients right now.”

As the President of your own company, you decide how much you earn. Maybe not in the short term, but over the long term, by the things that you do, or fail to do, you determine your own income. If you want to earn more money, go to the nearest mirror and negotiate with your “boss.” Your raise will become effective when you do.

Two Categories of Business Owners

You have heard it said that most businesses fail in the first two years. But this is not entirely accurate. If you divide businesses into two categories, those started by people with extensive knowledge and experience and those started by people with no knowledge or experience at all, you get two totally different failure rates.

Businesses started by people who have done what I will tell you about in this session have a success rate in excess of 90%. Businesses started by inexperienced people who have not done their homework have a failure rate of more than 90%. And even if your business fails initially, it is only by failing in business that you eventually learn to succeed greatly. As Phil Knight of Nike once said, “You only have to succeed the last time.”

On the David Susskind show many years ago, they interviewed four young entrepreneurs, each of whom was a self-made millionaire by the age of 30. David asked them to calculate how many different business start-ups they had been involved in before they found the business that enabled them to make more than a million dollars. The average was 17 businesses per person! But they had not been failing while their businesses had been failing. They had been becoming smarter and smarter as time passed until finally they were so knowledgeable and experienced that the very next business opportunity put them over the top. And this can happen to you as well.

Special Disciplines

To start and build your own successful business you need special disciplines; disciplines that are practiced by all successful entrepreneurs and self-made business millionaires. You can either learn and practice these disciplines early in your entrepreneurial career or you can learn and practice them later. Sooner or later you must become knowledgeable and skilled in each of these seven areas if you are going to build a successful enterprise. And the longer it takes you to master these seven areas, the longer it will take and the more it will cost, before you eventually achieve your financial and business goals.

The first discipline is the discipline of market analysis. This is where most entrepreneurs fail. They start off with a great idea, and often don’t want to tell anybody about it; for fear that someone will steal their idea. So they go off half-cocked into the marketplace with a product or service that has not been thought through properly and they are amazed when it fails.

The fact is that people are far too busy to steal your idea. 99 out of 100 new business ideas fail anyway. People who are operating their own businesses are far, far too busy to have even a minute of time to “steal” your idea, whatever it is.

Ask People’s Opinion

In fact, if you have an idea for a product or service in a particular industry, you should go to someone who is already in that industry and ask for their opinion. If you are really smart, you will get in touch with as many people in that industry as possible and lay out your idea to them in full and ask for their candid comments.

What you are looking for is “negative thinking.” A negative thinker is someone who will point out the holes and flaws in your plan. If you cannot patch the holes or fix the flaws in your plan for a new business, that is probably a pretty good indicator that your business is not going to succeed.

Beware of “Positive Thinkers”

The most dangerous people you can talk to are “positive thinkers.” These are people who will tell you that your business idea is wonderful and that you should “go for it!” They will tell you that this is a great time to start a business and that you will be a great success. Often these are your friends and relatives. But don’t get carried away. The only advice that is of any value to you is advice from people who are thoroughly knowledgeable and experienced in the area that you wish to start a business. Anyone else may be well-meaning but their advice is not worth much.

If you had a sore stomach, you wouldn’t ask your coworker if you should have surgery or whether or not he thinks that you have cancer. This is not the right person to talk to. For something as important as this, you need a specialist.

The discipline of market analysis requires that you thoroughly examine every detail of your market segment before you commit your time and money to offering your product or service there.

The Law of Three

Every new business starts with an idea to serve customers with a product or service that is faster, newer or better in some way. In fact there is a Law of Three that applies to a new business start up. Whatever you are offering, it must be better by a factor of three than anything else currently being offered to the same customers.

It must be a little faster, a little cheaper and a little bit more effective. It must have at least three benefits that competing products do not offer. If it has only one or two, you will probably fail in the long run.

Market analysis means that you find out if there is a real market for your product or service. How big is the market? Where is the market concentrated? Is the market concentrated sufficiently so that you can reach it effectively with advertising and sales? Who are your competitors in the marketplace? Why are your prospective customers buying from your competitors today?

Give People a Reason to Buy

And here’s the most important question: “Why should someone switch from their existing supplier of a similar product or service and buy from you?” The failure to ask and accurately answer this question has been the downfall of many small businesses. You have no idea how hard it is to get a customer to switch from a known supplier to an unknown supplier.

When I started one of my businesses, I thought that people would buy from me because it was me! I thought that because I was so positive, enthusiastic and convinced in the value and quality of my product, that customers would find my enthusiasm contagious and would buy it and use it in high quantities. What I found was that customers were not interested in switching at all. I had to call on customers over and over again before I could even get them to test my new product.

Eventually, I had to give my product away free, and give guarantees before people would even test it. Once I had given away free products with absolute guarantees of satisfaction, and people tested and used my product, I finally began to sell it. And I began to sell it just in time to avoid going broke completely.

What inducements will you have to give to your prospective customers to get them to switch from what they are doing to buy from you? How will you be able to describe your product or service in such a way that customers will be willing to give up the “devil they know,” for the devil they don’t?

Plan, Plan, Plan

The second discipline that you must become very good at is the discipline of planning. What this means, at the bare minimum, is that you must take the time to prepare a complete business plan before you start operations. Most entrepreneurs fail to do this, for a variety of reasons. And this is the reason that most entrepreneurs go broke.

The purpose of a business plan is not to acts as a road map or as a precise guide to the future. The purpose of creating a business plan is that the preparation of the plan forces you to think through every single critical issue that you will deal with in the future.

The very best and smartest business people are those who have already given a lot of thought to the various things that could happen and to the various things they might have to do, should those things happen. The least successful business people are those who have given no thought at all.

When you prepare a business plan, you are forced to sit down and carefully analyze and justify every single penny in it, first of all to yourself and then second of all to anyone from whom you are trying to raise money.

Three Parts to a Business Plan

A business plan consists of three main parts. The first part is the top line. This is the quantity of your product that you intend to sell on a monthly basis, projected forward 12to 18 months. Your ability to accurately project your sales is a key measure of your intelligence and your business ability. Once you have conservatively estimated your likely sales, you should cut that number in half to get the number that will turn out to be closer to reality once you begin business activities.

Remember the great rule of entrepreneurship is that everything costs twice as much and takes three times as long. I have shared this idea with thousands of entrepreneurs who have then told me that they were going to violate this principle and prove that it was too conservative. They came back shattered, like survivors of a battle, with their tails between their legs, finally admitting that the two times, three times rule was extremely realistic.

The middle line of your business plan includes every single expense that you can possibly imagine incurring in order to achieve your top line. You must deduct the total costs of the goods or services you plan to sell. You must deduct expenses like rent, telephone, utilities, printing, stationery, stamps, photo copiers, fax and Federal Express, staff costs, furniture costs and every other single detailed cost that you can imagine. These are called the “Costs of doing business.”

Once you have added up all the costs, you then take the total and add another 20% as a fudge factor to get a more realistic estimate of your final costs. Your ability to budget and project your sales and your costs accurately is the true measure of your business acumen. Leave nothing to chance. Go over every detail again and again.

When I prepare business statements, I will go through and estimate every number. I will then do a complete assessment, with documents, research, estimates, and actual proposals to justify every number in the business plan.

For example, if a person says to you, how did you estimate these costs for postage? You should be able to say that you estimated a certain number of letters of a certain weight going out on a daily basis over a one month, two month, three month and 12 month period to come up with an average postage cost of the amount that is in your business plan. Don’t ever let yourself be caught flat footed.

The Bottom Line

The bottom line is the amount of profit or loss that you expect to experience on a monthly basis. You then accumulate this amount along the bottom of the page so that you know how far ahead or behind you are on a monthly basis according to your projections.

You should probably expect to lose money for the first three, six or nine months. The minimum rule is that you should have six months of operating expenses set aside before you launch your new enterprise. You should assume that you will not make a single sale for six months. This may be conservative, but it is much better than the alternative of finding yourself broke and wiped out because you did not plan well enough.

The Discipline of Money

The third discipline you need for starting your own business is that of money. As I just mentioned, you need six full months of operating costs, in the bank, before you go into business. If you are thinking of starting a second income business, you can usually start with a small capital investment and use “sweat equity” instead of actual financial capital. Many people have become extremely successful in life starting from a low base and growing based on cash flow and profits from selling a product or service.

There are an enormous number of successful multi-level marketing businesses nationwide and throughout the world. If you start a multilevel marketing business, your first consideration should be an extremely low up-front cash investment in inventory and sales materials. After that, all your expenditure should be for products that you have already sold at a mark-up from the price at which you are buying them.

Many multi-level marketing companies allow you to start up as an independent wholesale distributor for as little as sixty dollars. In a case like this, you invest your time and your energy rather than your cash, and you keep your full time job while you are getting your feet solidly under you.

If you need money to start your own business, you should be aware that 99% of all start-up money is called “love money.” This is money that people give you because they love you, or money that you provide yourself by taking out a second mortgage on your home, selling everything that you have that you don’t need, and even borrowing cash against your credit cards.

Don’t Count On Banks

Banks simply do not lend money to new business start-ups. The failure rate is too high. Banks are not in the business of taking risks. Banks are in the business of making good, solid loans that they know will be paid back on a timely basis. Banks then make the margin between what they can borrow the money for and what they can lend it to you at.

Banks typically require three times, four times or five times collateralization to lend you any money at all. This means that no matter who you are or what your background, a bank will want proof that you have five dollars in liquid assets that they can seize and sell for every dollar you want to borrow from them. They will look at your business plan and listen attentively to your business ideas. But they won’t lend you any money.

Be an Outstanding Salesperson

The fourth discipline you require is the discipline of selling. You must be an absolutely outstanding salesperson for your product or service before you open your doors or you should not bother opening your doors at all.

The fact is that all successful businesses are started and built by someone who has a remarkable capacity to sell the product in a competitive market. The biggest mistake you can ever make is to think that someone else is going to do your selling for you.

The second biggest mistake you can make is to think that advertising or direct mail is going to sell your product or service for you. The only way that you are going to sell your product or service is by going out and getting face-to-face with critical, skeptical, cautious customers who can buy it if you can convince them of its value. Don’t waste a cent on advertising when you start up. That is one of the fastest ways to go broke sooner rather than later.

Listen to every audio program on selling that you can get a hold of. Read the books on selling written by people in your same industry. Attend sales training seminars and courses and then see as many customers as you can, all day, every day until you begin to bring in sales in excess of your costs of operation. The discipline of selling is the heartbeat of your business and the way you deal with this discipline will determine your success or failure.

The discipline of managing is something that you learn as your business begins to grow. There are thousands of books and hundreds of university degrees on management, including entrepreneurial management. Your ability to plan, organize, staff, delegate, supervise, measure and report is absolutely essential to being a good manager. Fortunately, you can learn these skills by study and practice. And always remember, your weakest important skill in management will set the limit on your success in your business. Whenever you are having problems of any kind, resolve to learn what you need to learn to become very competent in that area.

e Secrets of Power Negotiating

The sixth discipline is the discipline of negotiating. There is perhaps no better program to teach you negotiating than Roger Dawson’s The Secrets of Power Negotiating.

You learn how to negotiate by first of all studying the process of negotiating, and then second, practicing negotiating at every opportunity. You negotiate for better prices for your products and services when you are buying. You negotiate for higher prices and earlier payments for your products and services when you are selling. You negotiate for extended payment terms from your suppliers. You negotiate for better loan terms and interest rates from your bankers.

With regard to money and negotiating, the rule is that you preserve cash at all costs. You never buy when you can lease and never lease when you can rent. You never rent when you can borrow and you never get anything new if you can get it second hand. Negotiating for and protecting your sources of cash flow is the most important thing that you can do for a small business. If you run out of cash, you’re dead. Cash is to a small business as blood and oxygen is to the brain. You must fight, scramble, negotiate and do everything possible to assure that you always have cash reserves.

It has been said that every new business start-up is a race against time. It is a race to find a way to generate cash in excess of your costs before your cash runs out altogether. You stay in business to the degree to which you bring in enough money to pay for your mistakes until you are finally generating excess cash.

Become Resilient

The final discipline is the discipline of resilience. It is the ability to bounce back from the inevitable setbacks and disappointments that you will experience virtually every single day in starting and building your own business.

One of the marks of the superior entrepreneur is that he or she is always looking into the future and considering the worst possible thing that could happen in every area of the business. This is the mark of the superior leader as well.

I call this “Crisis Anticipation.” There are many books and articles on it. What it means is that you are constantly scanning the horizon and asking yourself, “What is the worst possible thing that could happen?” In your sales; with your staff; with your cash; and with your business? And then you think through and decide what you would do if that were to occur.

And finally, once you have determined the worst possible outcome and decided what you would do, you focus all of your energies on making sure that the worst possible thing does not happen, under any circumstances. You become resilient to the degree to which you have thought through what might happen and prepared yourself against any eventuality

Sometimes, a small setback can seem almost overwhelming if you’ve allowed yourself to get tired and run down. You become resilient to the degree to which you get lots of rest when you are starting and building your own business. As Vince Lombardi once said, “Fatigue doth make cowards of us all.”

You develop resilience by resolving to persist in the face of any difficulties, no matter what happens. Be clear about your goals but be flexible about the means of attaining those goals. If one thing doesn’t work, try something else. Be willing to be flexible and adaptable in the face of a changing market.

Remember, as they say in the military, no plans survives first contact with the enemy. No business plan survives first contact with the marketplace. Be willing to chop, change and try something else. Just make a decision in advance, that no matter what happens, you will keep on keeping on.

You have within you, right now, the ability to start and build a successful business. Millions of people have done it in the past, and millions more people will do it in the future. These people are not smarter or better than you are. They have simply learned what they needed to learn and then practiced it, over and over until it became second nature. And so can you. And when you learn how to start and build a successful business within our economic system, your future will be unlimited.

Water or Coolant Mixed With the Transmission Fluid: Is the Gearbox Ruined?

A silent killer of automatic transmissions or gearboxes is water or coolant mixing with automatic transmission fluid (ATF). This problem used to be seen in older vehicles with neglected engine cooling systems, but is becoming common in later model cars and trucks that have followed their maintenance schedules. The result is always the same: the transmission must be completely overhauled or replaced.

Can the Contaminated Fluid be Cleaned Out Before Damage Occurs?

Just about every automatic transmission on the road today uses cellulose based paper lined plates called clutches or frictions. These clutches act like brakes for moving and stopping different components inside the gearbox. When the shifter is placed into drive or reverse, it’s the frictions that are being applied.

The paper that lines the clutch plates is a very delicate material that is glued to a steel backbone. Before the paper is glued to the plate, it has the strength and consistency of a graham cracker. Once the material is bonded, it becomes much stronger and can last a very long time under normal operating conditions.

The clutch material is Hygroscopic. This means when the clutches are exposed to moisture, the paper material will displace ATF for water. That moisture reaches the steel plates causing rust, and breaks down the glue that bonds the paper to the plate. A study done by International Lubricants Inc about the effects of water exposed to automatic transmission clutches states, “The testing indicated that water added at levels as low as 600 mg/kg migrated to the surface of untreated paper frictionals and contributed to loss of the paper coating and erratic torque transfer properties.” In laymen’s terms, that means less than a tablespoon of water or engine coolant in a transmission can cause a failure.

How Did Water Get There?

There are three ways water can enter a transmission:

  1. Through the engine’s radiator. From the 1950’s to now, most automatic gearboxes are cooled with the same water based system that keeps the engine from overheating. There’s a separate tank in the radiator for transmission fluid that allows the coolant to take heat away from the ATF without mixing the two liquids. When a leak occurs between the ATF and engine coolant tanks in the radiator, the fluids will mix with each other. It was more common in older vehicles that had eroded cooling systems due to neglect, but some of today’s newer vehicles are using materials that are failing because of pressure problems in the cooling system.
  2. Exposure to deep water. Driving through large puddles during rain storms or off road driving can expose the transmission’s breathing system to moisture. The best chance of preventing a failure is to check for water in the ATF after a vehicle has been in this type of scenario.
  3. Moisture entering through the dipstick. Most vehicles have a dipstick where ATF is checked and added. Moisture can easily enter the transmission if the dipstick was sprayed with water during an engine cleaning, or in some cases, water draining from rain or a carwash drips onto the dipstick. GM and Chrysler have bulletins pertaining to this problem on some models of their vehicles. Qualified shops will have access to check for these types of bulletins. A tell tale sign of this problem is moisture or rust around the dipstick tube.

Replace or Rebuild?

It depends on how much water mixed with the transmission fluid, how long the vehicle was driven with the contaminated ATF, and the type of gearbox your vehicle has. Metal and electronic parts inside the transmission will quickly corrode when exposed to moisture. If there is too much damage inside of the gearbox, the cost of the parts to rebuild the trans will exceed the cost of replacing the unit with a remanufactured product. Some manufacturers like Nissan and Chevy have computers inside of the gearbox that will fail when exposed to moisture. These computers or mechtronics cost as much as $2,000 and that does not include rebuilding the rest of the unit. When parts cost that much, it’s often a better decision to replace the gearbox entirely.

To sum things up, if water gets in a transmission, there’s no way to get around an expensive repair. Flushing the fluid out will only cost you extra money and can make the inevitable failure happen sooner. Service the engine’s cooling system regularly and ask a professional transmission mechanic if your car is common for this type of failure. If it is, bypass the radiator with an external oil cooler.